Types of images

The APA guidelines distinguish between two types of images: tables and figures.

  • A table is characterized by information arranged in columns and rows, that can be read horizontally and vertically.
  • All other images, such as photographs, diagrams, charts, drawings, infographics and illustrations, are figures.
  • All images are given a number and a title. 
     

It depends on the origin of the image which other information is included. When copying existing images, the copyright holder is indicated under the table or figure. 

 

Tables

Tables are visual displays composed of columns and rows in which numbers, text, or a combination of numbers and text are presented.

There are many common kinds of tables, including demographic characteristics tables, correlation tables, factor analysis tables, analysis of variance tables, and regression tables.

The source citation consists of the following components: 

  • In text:

...in Table X...

  • Above the table: number and title in this format:

Table X

Table title

  • Below the table: note

Note. Reprinted from Main title in italics (p. x) by A. Author, publication year, Name of publisher. Copyright year of publication, Name of copyright holder.

The comment below the table may appear in a smaller font.

  • Reference list entry: mention all the data of the source the table originated from (book, webpage, article, etc.)

Author, A. (Publication year). Title. Publisher. or Retrieved on Month Day, Year, from http://xxxx

 


 

Example:

"Table 1 shows the usage figures of the APA website."


Table 1

Visitor numbers second half 2014 web pages HAN on APA

Note. Reprinted from Annual Report 2014 by Digital Study Center, University of Arnhem and Nijmegen, January 10, 2015.

 

Reference list entry:
HAN Digital Study Center. (2015). Annual report 2014. University of Applied Sciences, Arnhem and Nijmegen.

 

 

Figures

All types of visual displays other than tables are considered figures in APA Style. Common types of figures include line graphs, bar graphs, charts (e.g., flowcharts, pie charts), drawings, maps, plots (e.g., scatterplots), photographs, infographics, and other illustrations.

The source citation consist of the following components:

  • In text

... in Figure X ...

  • above the figure: figure number and title

Figure X

Figure Title

  • Below figure: note

Note. Reprinted from Main title in italics (p. x) by A. Author, publication year, Name of publisher. Copyright year of publication, Name of copyright holder.

The comment below the table may appear in a smaller font.

 

  • Reference list entry: mention all the data of the source the figure originated from

Author, A. (Publication year). Title. Publisher. or Retrieved on Month Day, Year, from http://xxxx

 


 

Example:

"In Figure 1, we show the visit rate of the web page."


Figure 1

Visitor numbers second half 2019 webpage HAN on APA
 

Note. Reprinted from Visitor numbers second half 2019 web pages HAN on APA. Data taken from Digital Study Center, University of Applied Sciences, Arnhem and Nijmegen, January 10, 2020.

 

Reference list entry:

Digital Study Center HAN. (2020). Visitor numbers second half 2019 web pages HAN on APA. University of Applied Sciences, Arnhem and Nijmegen.

 

 

Image as an illustration

In addition to using images (tables, figures, photographs, etc.) as explanatory material for the text, it is also possible to include an image for illustrative purposes only, for example on the front cover of a report. Whether and how this is referred to depends on the origin of the image.

  • Own image

For a photograph, painting, drawing or other image which the author of the text has made himself, the same rule applies as for the text: it is his own work and does not need to be mentioned, neither in the text nor in the reference list.

 

  • Received image

An image may have been created by a classmate, family member or colleague. An image may also have been made available by the institution where the internship was done. Also for these images applies that no separate reference is included. It is of course permitted, for example in a word of thanks, to thank the maker or owner of the image for making it available. Also, if an institution has given permission for the use of the logo, a separate reference is not necessary.

 

  • Image from the Internet

If an image is used only as an illustration, it is advisable to read the conditions for reuse beforehand. If the report is published, for example on the HBO Knowledge Bank, this is regarded as re-publication of the photo and it is important that the owner of the photo agrees. If so, write 'Reproduced with permission'.


If an image is used only as an illustration, there is no reference in the text. No extended reference is placed under the image. Instead, note only:

 

Author, A. (Year or n.d.). Title. Copyright information (or CC-licentie or 'In public domein').

 

  • Image from a web page

IsaacMao. (2005,  June 14). Brain [Image]. Flickr. Retrieved February 17, 2021, from https://www.flickr.com/photos/isaacmao/19245594

 

Because there is no reference to the image in the report, the short reference (author's last name, year) is placed under the image, similar to a reference in the text. You may also place the reference on the next page by writing 'Cover photo: last name author, year'.

 

  • Creative Commons licence image

Because the image is used as an illustration, it is important to check beforehand whether the copyright holder (usually the creator) of the image gives permission for this. Sometimes this is the case if the image has a Creative Commons license, a condition under which the image may be reused.

If the image is not or no longer covered by copyright, write 'In the public domain'.

 

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