Book

Author, A., & Author, B. (Publication date). Title: Subtitle. Publisher.

  • 1 author
Erdrich, L. (2012). The round house (1st ed.). Harper.

Parenthetical citation: (Erdrich, 2012)

Narrative citation: Erdrich (2012)

  • up to 20 authors

Hurtienne, J., Löffler, D., Hüsch, C., Reinhardt, D., Tscharn, R., & Huber, S. (2020). Happy is up, sad is down: 65 metaphors for design. BIS Publishers.

Parenthetical citation: (Hurtienne et al., 2020)

Narrative citation: Hurtienne et al. (2020)

  • organization as author and publisher

American Psychological Association. (2020). Publication manual of the American Psychological Association: The official guide to APA style (7th edition).

Parenthetical citation:  (American Psychological Association, 2020)
Narrative citation: American Psychological Association (2020)

 

Ebook

  • ebook with DOI

Author, A. (Publication date). Title: Subtitle. Publisher. https://doi.org/xxxx

Domingues, M. V. J. P. (2021). Energy costs and farm characteristics in the european union : highlighting linkages with structural and policy dimensions (Ser. Springerbriefs in applied sciences and technology). Springer. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-75839-4

Parenthetical citation: (Domingues, 2021)

Narrative citation: Domingues (2021)

  •  ebook without DOI

Author, A. (Publication date). Title: Subtitle. Publisher. Retrieved Month day, year, from http://xxxx or https://xxxx

McKinney, M., Pattison, K., LeMire, S., Anders, K., & Nicole Hagstrom-Schmidt, N. (Eds.). (2021). Howdy or Hello? Technical and Professional Communication (Revised Pilot Edition). Texas A&M University. Retrieved May 31, 2021, from https://open.umn.edu/opentextbooks/textbooks/howdy-or-hello-technical-and-business-communications

Parenthetical citation: (McKinney et al., 2021)

Narrative citation: McKinney et al. (2021) 

Chapter in a book

If you have consulted a chapter from a book that was compiled by one or more editors, refer to that chapter.

The source reference contains information about both the chapter and the book.  It works as follows:

 

Author, A. (Publication date). Chapter title: Subtitle. In A. Editor(Ed.), Book title: Subtitle (pp. xx-xx). Publisher.

 

Dillard, J. P. (2020). Currents in the study of persuasion. In M. B. Oliver, A. A. Raney, & J. Bryant (Eds.), Media effects: Advances in theory and research (4th ed., pp. 115–129). Routledge.

Parenthetical citation: (Dillard, 2020)

Narrative citation: Dillard (2020)

  • for an e-book chapter, you also mention the URL or https://doi.org/xxxx:

Zeleke, W. A., Hughes, T. L., & Drozda, N. (2020). Home–school collaboration to promote mind–body health. In C. Maykel & M. A. Bray (Eds.), Promoting mind–body health in schools: Interventions for mental health professionals (pp. 11–26). American Psychological Association. https://doi.org/10.1037/0000157-002

Parenthetical citation: (Zeleke et al., 2020)

Narrative citation: Zeleke et al. (2020) 

Reference works (dictionary, encyclopedia)

When a word is looked up in a reference work (dictionary or encyclopedia) to be sure of its meaning it does not need to be referenced.

If you quote or paraphrase from a reference work, you ought to include it in the reference list.

 

The general source citation of a reference work does not differ from that of a book, but often reference works have only editor(s) or no author(s) at all.

Author, A. (Publication date). Title. Publisher.

  • with author(s) or editor(s)

Zalta, E. N. (Ed.). (2019). The Standford encyclopedia of philosophy (Summer 2019 ed.). Standford University.

Parenthetical citation: (Zalta, 2019)

Narrative citation: Zalta (2019)

  • without authors
Oxford Languages.(2010). Oxford Paperback French Dictionary. Oxford University Press.

Parenthetical citation: (Oxford Languages, 2010)

Narrative citation: Oxford Languages (2010) 

  • part of multi-part reference work

Kloft, J. (Bearb.). (1979). Inventar des Urkundenarchivs der Fürsten von Hatzfeldt-Wildenburg zu Schönstem/Sieg. In Band 2 Regesten Nr. 451 bis 1050 (pp. 1467-1536). Rheinland-Verlag.

Parenthetical citation: (Kloft, 1979)

Narrative citation: Kloft (1979) 

  • Wikipedia entry

Lemma. (year, Month day ). In Title reference work. Retrieved Month day, year, from http://xxxx of https://xxxx

ADHD. (2020, September 1). In Wikipedia. Retrieved September 30, 2020, from https://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/ADHD

Parenthetical citation ("ADHD", 2020)

Narrative citation: "ADHD" (2020)

Journal article

  • scientific journal article in print

Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (Publication date). Article title. Journal Title, volume(number), pages.

McCauley, S. M., & Christiansen, M. H. (2019). Language learning as language use: A cross-linguistic model of child language development. Psychological review126(1), 1.

Parenthetical citation: (McCauley & Christiansen, 2019)

Narrative citation: McCauley and Christiansen (2019)

  • scientific journal article electronic with DOI

Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (Publication date). Article title. Journal Title, volume(number), pages. https://doi.org/xxxx

Lachner, A., Backfisch, I., Hoogerheide, V., Van Gog, T., & Renkl, A. (2020). Timing matters! Explaining between study phases enhances students’ learning. Journal of Educational Psychology, 112(4), 841–853. https://doi.org/10.1037/edu0000396

Parenthetical citation: (Lachner et al., 2020)

Narrative citation: Lachner et al. (2020) 

  • journal article electronic without DOI

Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (Publication date). Article title. Journal Title, volume(number), pages. Retrieved Month day, year, from http(s)://xxxx 

Stegmeir, M. (2016). Climate change: New discipline practices promote college access. The Journal of College Admission, (231), 44–47. Retrieved January 25, 2022, from https://www.nxtbook.com/ygsreprints/NACAC/nacac_jca_spring2016/#/46

Parenthetical citation: (Stegmeir, 2016)

Narrative citation: Stegmeir (2016)

 

Newspaper article

  • printed

Author, A. (Year, Month Day). Title of article. Name newspaper, page number of section.

Hess, A. (2019, January 3). Cats who take direction. The New York Times, C1.

Parenthetical citation: (Hess, 2019)

Narrative citation: Hess (2019)

  • online

Author, A. (year, Month day). Title of article. Newspaper name. Retrieved Month day, year, from http://xxxx or https://xxxx

Gander, K. (2020, 29 april). COVID-19 vaccine being developed in Australia raises antibodies to neutralize virus in pre-clinical tests. Newsweek. Retrieved June 30, 2020 from https://www.newsweek.com/australia-covid-19- vaccine-neutralize-virus-1500849

Parenthetical citation: (Gander, 2020)

Narrative citation: Gander (2020)

Reports & brochures (gray literature)

  • Additional information such as edition, volume, issue or volume number may be included between the round brackets for identification.
  • If necessary, a description for identification may be given in square brackets for less common informal publications, such as brochures, policy papers, press releases, etc.

Examples: 

  • printed

Author, A. (Publication date). Title (Issue number or volume). Publisher

 

The Council of Europe Youth Sector. (n.d.). Youth for Democracy: The Councile of Europe Youth for Democracy Programme [Brochure]. The Council of Europe.

Parenthetical citation: (The Council of Europe Youth Sector, n.d.)
Narrative citation: The Council of Europe Youth Sector (n.d.)

 

  • online: add 'Retrieved on..., from http(s)//:xxxx ' or DOI

Author, A. (Publication date). Title (issue number or volume). Publisher. Retrieved Month day, year, from http://xxxx or https://xxxx

 

Boone, J. (2020). Pricing above value: Selling to an adverse selection market (Discussion paper 2020-023). Tilburg University. Retrieved January 15, 2021, from https://research.tilburguniversity.edu/en/publications/pricing-above-value-selling-to-an-adverse-selection-market

Parenthetical citation: (Boone, 2020)

Narrative citation: Boone (2020)

Doctoral, master or bachelor theses, internship report

  • unpublished
  • When a dissertation or thesis is unpublished, include the description “[Unpublished doctoral dissertation]” or “[Unpublished master’s thesis]” in square brackets after the dissertation or thesis title.
  • In the source element of the reference, provide the name of the institution that awarded the degree

Author, A. (Publication year). Title of thesis [Description]. Name of institution. 

Harris, L. (2014). Instructional leadership perceptions and practices of elementary school leaders [Unpublished doctoral dissertation]. University of Virginia.

Parenthetical citation: (Harris, 2014)

Narrative citation: Harris (2014)

  • published
  • In the source element of the reference, provide the name of the database, repository, or archive.

Author, A. (Publication year). Title of thesis [Description, Name of institution]. Name database or archive. 

Kabir, J. M. (2016). Factors influencing customer satisfaction at a fast food hamburger chain: The relationship between customer satisfaction and customer loyalty (Publication No. 10169573) [Doctoral dissertation, Wilmington University]. ProQuest Dissertations & Theses Global.

Parenthetical citation: (Kabir, 2016)

Narrative citation: Kabir (2016)

 

  • published with access
  • Include a URL for the dissertation or thesis if the URL will resolve for readers

Author, A. (Publication year). Title of theses [Description, Name of institution]. Name database or archive. Retrieved Month day, year from http(s)://xxxx 

Zambrano-Vazquez, L. (2016). The interaction of state and trait worry on response monitoring in those with worry and obsessive-compulsive symptoms [Doctoral dissertation, University of Arizona]. UA Campus Repository. https://repository.arizona.edu/handle/10150/620615 

Parenthetical citation: (Zambrano-Vazquez, 2016)

Narrative citation: Zambrano-Vazquez (2016) 

Published dissertation or thesis references are covered in Section 10.6 of the APA Publication Manual, Seventh Edition

Legal works

  • legal text from a book - apply the guidelines for a book
Blanpain, R., Hendrickx, F., & Biagi, M. (2002). Codex European labour and social security law. Kluwer Law International.

Parenthetical citation: (Blanpain et al., 2002)

Narrative citation: Blanpain et al. (2002)

  •   legal text online

The title is in front and the date is the day of issue. In the text you may refer to a specific article and/or section number.

 

Directive 2001/29/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 22 May 2001 on the harmonisation of certain aspects of copyright and related rights in the information society. (2001, June 22). Official Journal of the European Communities, (L 167), 10-19. Retrieved April 11, 2022 from https://eur-lex.europa.eu/eli/dir/2001/29/oj

Parenthetical citation: (Directive 2001/29/EC, 2001, Article 8)
Narrative citation: Directive 2001/29/EC (2001, Article 8)

 

Conference sessions or presentations

  • Describe the presentation in square brackets after the title. The description is flexible (e.g., “[Conference session],” “[Paper presentation],” “[Poster session]”).
  • Provide the names of the presenter(s) in the author element of the reference.
  • Provide the full dates of the conference in the date element of the reference.
  • Provide the name of the conference or meeting and its location in the source element of the reference
  • If video of the conference presentation is available, include a link at the end of the reference.

 

Presenter, A. (Year, Month day). Title of contribution [Type of contribution]. Conference name, Location. Retrieved Month day, year, from https://xxxx

 

Evans, A. C., Jr., Garbarino, J., Bocanegra, E., Kinscherff, R. T., & Márquez-Greene, N. (2019, August 8–11). Gun violence: An event on the power of community [Conference presentation]. APA 2019 Convention, Chicago, IL, United States. Retrieved March 20, 2022 from https://convention.apa.org/2019-video

Parenthetical citation: (Evans et. al, 2019)
Narrative citation: Evans et al. (2019)

Translated Works

Author, A. (Publication Date). Title (T. Translator, Trans.). Publisher. (Original work published Year)

  • When a text was originally published in another language, the original author is mentioned both in the text and in the reference list. The translator is only mentioned in the reference list.
  • Credit the translator or translators in the reference by writing the abbreviation “Trans.” after the translator’s name and placing both the name and abbreviation in parentheses after the title of the work.
  • Both the original publication date and the republished date of the translated work appear in the in-text citations, with the earlier year first, separated with a slash.
  • Credit the original source by providing the year the work was originally published (in its original language) at the end of the reference in parentheses and preceded by the words “Original work published”.
 
  • Printed book, republished in translation
 Coelho, P. (1993). The alchemist (A. R. Clarke, Trans.). HarperOne. (Original work published 1988)
Parenthetical citation: (Coelho, 1988/1993)

Narrative citation: Coelho (1988/1993)

  • Journal article, republished in translation

Piaget, J. (1972). Intellectual evolution from adolescence to adulthood (J. Bliss & H. Furth, Trans.). Human Development15(1), 1–12. https://doi.org/10.1159/000271225 (Original work published 1970)

Parenthetical citation: (Piaget, 1970/1972)

Narrative citation: Piaget (1970/1972)

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