Official APA 7th guidelines


Tools for source citation


A reference manager is a web-based program that allows you to collect, store, organize and manage source citations (references).

Benefits of a reference manager:

  • References are stored online and can be imported without manual entry.
  • Attachments, e.g. the pdf file of an article, can be added to the references.
  • References can be shared with others.
  • Add source references directly into your article, report, etc. in APA style or any other desired style.  

Well-known reference programs are Endnote, Mendeley, Refworks and Zotero. Mendeley and Zotero are for free. For Endnote and Refworks, your own educational institution usually has a paid license. Inquire within your own organization about the possibilities.



Manage and process your sources with RefWorks

With RefWorks, you can (amongst other things):

  • collect your references in your own list(s)
  • upload a copy of the full text with the reference, so you don't lose it.
  • organise your references in folders 
  • read your documents and make notes
  • use the RefWorks extensions in Word or Google Docs to add references to your documents in the right format
  • produce a reference list in any bibliographical format you want (APA, Harvard or others)
  • share a list of references with your peers and work together on collecting literature.

For more information see Library Guide RefWorks








In many search engines (in databases or catalogs), you can automatically generate a source reference.

If not, you still have all the data you need, together in one place, to generate a reference by yourself.


Catalog (e.g. WorldCat)

  • For each catalog item, a bar with options appears.
  • Choose "Cite", a window with options will appear.
  • You can now export the source description to reference mangers like EndNote or RefWorks or choose a citation style from the drop-down menu.
  • Choose APA 7th and copy the description that appears below it.

Note: always check that the automatic source citation is complete and conforms to the guidelines!


Google Scholar:

Each search result is presented with a bar with various options directly below it. 

Choose the quotation marks icon in the bar:

  • A screen appears with the bibliographic description of the article in 3 styles, including APA;
  • Select the description in APA style and copy & paste it into the source list of the document you are writing,
  • Be sure to check the data for completeness,
  • You can also export the article to a reference manager to add to your document later.



Scribbr has a handy app APA Citation Generator for creating and saving source citations and references.

  • Choose the right type of publication.
  • Look up a publication (title or DOI)
  • Scribbr automatically fills in all the data. Do check that everything is correct.
  • If Scribbr cannot find the publication fill in all data yourself.
  • Click on 'Generate source'.

About this guide

This guide is a result of a collaboration between several Dutch higher education institutions and the APA Working Group.



The source citations used as examples in this guide are partly derived from:

  • The booklet The APA Guidelines Explained (= De APA-richtlijnen uitgelegd: een praktische handleiding voor bronvermelding in het hoger onderwijs) (3rd ed.) ,
  •  Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (7th ed.),
  • fictitiously made up.

No rights can be derived from the content of the sources.