Author, A. (Year, Month Day). Title webpage. Name website. Retrieved Month day, year, from http://xxxx or https://xxxxx

  • If the webpage mentions the month and/or day in addition to a year, this is also mentioned in the reference; in the in-text citation, only the year is mentioned.
  • Many webpages without a year or date do have a copyright notice at the bottom of the page, after a © sign. This says nothing about the date of publication of the webpage, only about the year of copyright of the entire website. Therefore, in these cases, please write n.d. (= 'no date').
  • When different webpages of a website are accessed, each page with its own URL gets its own entry.


  • webpage on a news website

Toner, K. (2020, September 24). When Covid-19 hit, he turned his newspaper route into a lifeline for senior citizens. CNN. Retrieved April 6, 2022, from https://www.cnn.com/2020/06/04/us/coronavirus-newspaper-deliveryman-groceries-senior-citizens-cnnheroes-trnd/index.html

Parenthetical citation: (Toner, 2020)
Narrative citation: Toner (2020) 

  •  blog post

Klymkowsky, M. (2019, May 3). Can we talk scientifically about free will? Bioliteracy. Retrieved April 11, 2022, from https://bioliteracy.blog/2018/09/15/can-we-talk-scientifically-about-free-will/

Parenthetical citation: (Klymkowsky, 2019)
Narrative citation: Klymkowsky (2019)


Social media

Author, A. (Year, Month Day). Content of the post up to the first 20 words [Description]. Site name. Retrieved Month day, year, from http://xxxx of https://xxxx

  • Only link to original posts. Pinterest, for example, does not contain original material but links to existing files. Click on the image to find out the original URL.
  • Copy the content of the message word-for-word, including any different spelling, hashtags and emojis, up to first 20 words.
  • Most text files can display emojis. If this is not possible, please provide a description in square brackets. Full list of emoji names can be found on the Unicode Consortium's website (http://unicode.org/emoji/charts/index.html).
  • If a post includes images, videos, thumbnail links to outside sources, or content from another post (such as when sharing a link), indicate that in square brackets.



  • Facebook

News From Science. (2019, June 21). Are you a fan of astronomy? Enjoy reading about what scientists have discovered in our solar system—and beyond? This [Image attached] [Status update]. Facebook. Retrieved May 20, 2020, from https://www.facebook.com/ScienceNOW/photos/a.117532185107/10156268057260108/?type=3&theater

Parenthetical citation: (News From Science, 2019)

Narrative citation: News from Science (2019) 

  • Instagram/ Twitter/ TikTok: 
  • Present the name of the individual or group author in the same way you would do for any other reference. Then provide the Instagram handle (beginning with the @ sign) in square brackets, followed by a period.

Rijksmuseum [@Rijksmuseum]. (2019, September 9). Recent study proves visiting a museum makes you happy and has a positive effect on your sense of community and [Photograph]. Instagram. Retrieved June 21 2020, from https://www.instagram.com/p/B1v9EV9CnSU/

Parenthetical citation: (Rijksmuseum, 2019)
Narrative citation: Rijksmuseum (2019)